Cooling Strategies for IT Wiring Closets and Small Rooms Cooling for IT wiring closets is rarely planned and typically only implemented after failures or overheating occur. Historically, no clear standard exists for specifying sufficient cooling to achieve predictable behavior within wiring closets. An appropriate specification for cooling IT wiring closets should assure compatibility with anticipated loads, provide unambiguous instruction for design and installation of cooling equipment, prevent oversizing, maximize electrical efficiency, and be flexible enough to work in various shapes and types of closets. This paper describes the science and practical application of an improved method for the specification of cooling for wiring closets.
Reducing the Hidden Costs Associated with Upgrades of Data Center Power Capacity Scaling the power capacity of legacy UPS systems leads to hidden costs that may outweigh the very benefit that scalability intends to provide. A scalable UPS system provides a significant benefit to the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of data center and network room physical infrastructure. This paper describes the drawbacks of scaling legacy UPS systems and how scalable rack-based systems address these drawbacks. The cost factors of both methods are described, quantified and compared.
Fundamental Principles of Network Security Security incidents are rising at an alarming rate every year. As the complexity of the threats increases, so do the security measures required to protect networks. Data center operators, network administrators, and other data center professionals need to comprehend the basics of security in order to safely deploy and manage networks today. This paper covers the fundamentals of secure networking systems, including firewalls, network topology and secure protocols. Best practices are also given that introduce the reader to some of the more critical aspects of securing a network.
Energy Efficient Cooling for Data Centers: A Close-Coupled Row Solution The trend of increasing heat densities in data centers has held consistent with advances in computing technology for many years. As power density increased, it became evident that the degree of difficulty in cooling these higher power loads was also increasing. In recent years, traditional cooling system design has proven inadequate to remove concentrated heat loads (20 kW per rack and higher). This has driven an architectural shift in data center cooling. The advent of a newer cooling architecture designed for these higher densities has brought with it increased efficiencies for the data center. This article discusses the efficiency benefits of row-based cooling compared to two other common cooling architectures.
Ten Cooling Solutions to Support High-density Server Deployment High-density servers offer a significant performance per watt benefit. However, depending on the deployment, they can present a significant cooling challenge. Vendors are now designing servers that can demand over 40 kW of cooling per rack. With most data centers designed to cool an average of no more than 2 kW per rack, innovative strategies must be used for proper cooling of high-density equipment. This paper provides ten approaches for increasing cooling efficiency, cooling capacity, and power density in existing data centers.
Ten Steps to Solving Cooling Problems Caused by High Density Server Deployment High-density servers offer a significant performance per watt benefit. However, depending on the deployment, they can present a significant cooling challenge. Vendors are now designing servers that can demand over 40 kW of cooling per rack. With most data centers designed to cool an average of no more than 2 kW per rack, innovative strategies must be used for proper cooling of high-density equipment. This paper provides ten approaches for increasing cooling efficiency, cooling capacity, and power density in existing data centers.
Virtualization: Optimized Power and Cooling to Maximize Benefits Data centers are routinely and unknowingly missing a great portion of their entitlement from virtualization. Beyond virtualization’s undisputed IT benefits –from reduced rack footprint to disaster recovery –is the parallel story of a substantial benefit from optimizing the physical infrastructure that supports it. In particular, row-based cooling, correctly sized power and cooling, and real-time capacity management are essential elements in realizing virtualization’s full potential in cost reduction, efficiency and reliability.
Guidelines for Specification of Data Center Criticality / Tier Levels A framework for benchmarking a future data center’s operational performance is essential for effective planning and decision making. Currently available criticality or tier methods do not provide defensible specifications for validating data center performance. An appropriate specification for data center criticality should provide unambiguous defensible language for the design and installation of a data center. This paper analyzes and compares existing tier methods, describes how to choose a criticality level, and proposes a defensible data center criticality specification. Maintaining a data center’s criticality is also discussed.
Avoiding Costs From Oversizing Data Center and Network Room Infrastructure The physical and power infrastructure of data centers and network rooms is typically oversized by more than 100%. Statistics related to oversizing are presented. The costs associated with oversizing are quantified. The fundamental reasons why oversizing occurs are discussed. An architecture and method for avoiding oversizing is described.
Guidance for calculation of efficiency (PUE) in real data centers Before data center infrastructure efficiency can be benchmarked using PUE or other metrics, there must be agreement on exactly what power consumptions constitute IT loads, what consumptions constitute physical infrastructure, and what loads should not be counted. Unfortunately, commonly published efficiency data is not computed using a standard methodology, and the same data center will have different efficiency ratings when different methodologies are applied. This paper explains the problem and describes a standardized method for classifying data center loads for efficiency calculations.
Performing Effective MTBF Comparisons for Data Center Infrastructure Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) is often proposed as a key decision making criterion when comparing data center infrastructure systems. Misleading values are often provided by vendors, leaving the user incapable of making a meaningful comparison. When the variables and assumptions behind the numbers are unknown or are misinterpreted, bad decisions are inevitable. This paper explains how MTBF can be effectively used as one of several factors for specification and selection of systems, by making the assumptions explicit.
Ten Errors to Avoid When Commissioning a Data Center Data center commissioning can deliver an unbiased evaluation of whether a newly constructed data center will be an operational success or a failure. Proper execution of the commissioning process is a critical step in determining how the data center operates as an integrated system. The documentation produced as a result of commissioning is also the single, most enduring value added deliverable in a data center’s operational life. This paper outlines the ten most common errors that prevent successful execution of the commissioning process.
Implementing Energy Efficient Data Centers Electricity usage costs have become an increasing fraction of the total cost of ownership (TCO) for data centers. It is possible to dramatically reduce the electrical consumption of typical data centers through appropriate design of the network-critical physical infrastructure and through the design of the IT architecture. This paper explains how to quantify the electricity savings and provides examples of methods that can greatly reduce electrical power consumption.
Network-Critical Physical Infrastructure: Optimizing Business Value To stay competitive in today’s rapidly changing business world, companies must update the way they view the value of their investment in data center physical infrastructure (DCPI). No longer are simply availability and upfront cost sufficient to make adequate business decisions. Agility, or business flexibility, and low total cost of ownership have become equally important to companies that will succeed in a changing global marketplace.
How Data Center Infrastructure Management Software Improves Planning and Cuts Operational Costs Business executives are challenging their IT staffs to convert data centers from cost centers into producers of business value. Data centers can make a significant impact to the bottom line by enabling the business to respond more quickly to market demands. This paper demonstrates, through a series of examples, how data center infrastructure management software tools can simplify operational processes, cut costs, and speed up information delivery.
Cooling Strategies for Ultra-High Density Racks and Blade Servers Rack power of 10 kW per rack or more can result from the deployment of high density information technology equipment such as blade servers. This creates difficult cooling challenges in a data center environment where the industry average rack power consumption is under 2 kW. Five strategies for deploying ultra-high power racks are described, covering practical solutions for both new and existing data centers.
Estimating a Data Center’s Electrical Carbon Footprint Data center carbon emissions are a growing global concern. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cites data centers as a major source of energy consumption in the United States. This paper introduces a simple approach, supported by free web-based tools, for estimating the carbon footprint of a data center anywhere in the world.
Allocating data center energy costs and carbon to IT users Are complicated software and instrumentation needed to measure and allocate energy costs and carbon to IT users? Or can we get by with simple, low cost methods for energy cost and carbon allocation? How precise do we need to be? This paper provides an overview of energy cost and carbon allocation strategies and their precision.
Electrical Efficiency Measurement for Data Centers Data center electrical efficiency is rarely planned or managed. The unfortunate result is that most data centers waste substantial amounts of electricity. Today it is both possible and prudent to plan, measure, and improve data center efficiency. In addition to reducing electrical consumption, efficiency improvements can gain users higher IT power densities and the ability to install more IT equipment in a given installation. This paper explains how data center efficiency can be measured, evaluated, and modeled, including a comparison of the benefits of periodic assessment vs. continuous monitoring.
Power and Cooling Capacity Management for Data Centers High density IT equipment stresses the power density capability of modern data centers. Installation and unmanaged proliferation of this equipment can lead to unexpected problems with power and cooling infrastructure including overheating, overloads, and loss of redundancy. The ability to measure and predict power and cooling capability at the rack enclosure level is required to ensure predictable performance and optimize use of the physical infrastructure resource. This paper describes the principles for achieving power and cooling capacity management.
Data Center Projects: Systems Planning System planning is the Achilles’ heel of a data center physical infrastructure project. Planning mistakes can magnify and propagate through later deployment phases, resulting in delays, cost overruns, wasted time, and ultimately a compromised system. Much of the trouble can be eliminated by viewing system planning as a data flow model, with an orderly sequence of tasks that progressively transform and refine information from initial concept to final design.
Hot-Aisle vs. Cold-Aisle Containment for Data Centers Both hot and cold air containment can improve the predictability and efficiency of traditional data center cooling systems. While both approaches minimize the mixing of hot and cold air, there are practical differences in implementation and operation that have significant consequences on work environment conditions, PUE, and economizer hours.
Deploying High-Density Zones in a Low-Density Data Center New breakthroughs in power and cooling technology allow for a simple and rapid deployment of self-contained high density zones within an existing or new low density data center. Guidance on planning design, implementation, and predictable operation of high density zones is provided.
A Quantitative Comparison of High Efficiency AC vs. DC Power Distribution for Data Centers This paper presents a detailed quantitative efficiency comparison between the most efficient DC and AC power distribution methods, including an analysis of the effects of power distribution efficiency on the cooling power requirement and on total electrical consumption. The latest high efficiency AC and DC power distribution architectures are shown to have virtually the same efficiency, suggesting that a move to a DC-based architecture is unwarranted on the basis of efficiency.
An Improved Architecture for High-Efficiency, High-Density Data Centers Data center power and cooling infrastructure worldwide wastes more than 60, 000, 000 megawatt-hours per year of electricity that does no useful work powering IT equipment. This represents an enormous financial burden on industry, and is a significant public policy environmental issue. This paper describes the principles of a new, commercially available data center architecture that can be implemented today to dramatically improve the electrical efficiency of data centers.
Creating Order from Chaos in Data Centers and Server Rooms Data center professionals can rid themselves of messy racks, sub-standard under floor air distribution, and cable sprawl with a minimum of heartache and expense. Whether the data center mess is created over years of mismanagement or whether the cable-choked data center is inherited, solutions for both quick fixes and longer term evolutionary changes exist. This paper outlines several innovative approaches for dealing with the symptoms of chaos and for eliminating the root causes of disorder.
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